Graphene Technical Documentation

Welcome to the Graphene Documentation


Please note that the content of this web page is out-dated and currently under review by the BitShares Blockchain Foundation. If you need factual information regarding the BitShares Blockchain, or BTS, please contact

Welcome to the Graphene Documentation

The developers of BitShares formed Cryptonomex to monetize the technology, experience, reputation and good will they accumulated during their first two years of development and operations. Much of that technology is embodied in Graphene™, an industrial strength software platform for deploying third generation cryptographically secure decentralized ledgers known as block chains.

Graphene based systems have orders of magnitude better performance than first-generation Bitcoin-derived systems or even the second generation “Bitcoin 2.0” systems that constitute our current closest competitors. Graphene based systems go beyond mere “checkbook” style payments to offer a broad range of financial services distinguished by their transparency and inherent incorruptibility.

This page documents the Graphene technology built by Cryptonomex. You can see Graphene as a toolkit for real-time blockchains. We separated the documentation into smaller parts for convenience and for the sake of easy location of relevant information.

If you are here to find out more about BitShares and want to get started right away, we recommend that you take a look at the Getting Started guide!

Blockchain Specific Guides

The Graphene Technology has been applied to several blockchain already. BitShares 2.0 has been the first application of Graphene technology and you will be able to find almost everything feature implemented in BitShares 2.0. Further blockchains will be added independenly.

BitShares 2.0 is a Financial Smart Contracts platform that enables trading of digital assets and has market-pegged assets that track the value of their underlying asset (e.g. bitUSD tracking the U.S. dollar).

MUSE is a public ledger specifically tailored for the Music Industry that keeps track of worldwide copyrights. It is an ownerless, automated, globally distributed, Peer-to-Peer network that is both transparent and open to all.